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Technology Commercialization

Case study analysis on DOST Small Enterprise Technology Upgrading Program Innovation Support System Support Fund (SETUP ISSF) among Food Sector Beneficiaries in the Province of Aklan

Author:  Jairus M. Lachica (2014)


The Department of Science and Technology has implemented various programs in the Philippines. One of the programs is the Small Enterprise Technology Upgrading Program (DOST SETUP) which assists SMEs in improving productivity and competitiveness through the infusion of advanced technologies, technology acquisition, manpower trainings, consultancy services, technical assistance, packaging and labelling services, product testing and database information systems. In Region VI, there are a total of 163 firms which have been assisted under the DOST SETUP Innovation System Support Fund from 2003-2012 wherein 12 firms were engaged in the food processing sector that had availed the program in the province of Aklan. To assess the project implementation among food sectors, a case study was conducted to better understand the things that affect the success and failure of their project under DOST SETUP ISSF in the province of Aklan. In this study, the project researcher aimed in investigating the projects being implemented and those that have already been implemented by DOST VI under SETUP ISSF within the food processing sector in the province of Aklan. This will determine how the food processing firms managing the project consider it to be a success or a failure. Also, the case study will identify the factors to be considered in project implementation amongst food processors in the province. Specifically, the study will identify the enterprise profile of food processing firms who availed the program, identify problems encountered and solutions performed by the firm during project implementation, determine the factors that affect the success and failure of projects and assess project implementation of each firm. The results of the study will give information to the Department of Science and Technology Region VI (DOST VI) on important areas to be enhanced or developed for the continual progress of the program, not only for the food processing sector but also to other priority areas of DOST. Also, this will provide information about factors that can be critical to the success of a project to the implementing agency as well as the beneficiary. Further, this will help them determine any appropriate technology needed in the production and identify factors that will affect the project implementation for prevention and adjustment to project operation. The study utilized a case study research. This will provide more thorough analysis of a situation or case which might reveal interesting information about that particular classification of conditions. The participants were the 13 SETUP ISSF food processing beneficiaries from 2003-2012 in the province of Aklan. At the end of the project, the project researcher will create an updated list of the status of DOST SETUP ISSF beneficiaries as grouped by the food processing sector determine the factors that affect the success and failure of project implementation assess DOST SETUP ISSF impact among food processing beneficiary in the province of Aklan and identify areas needed for improvement to further strengthen the implementation of DOST SETUP ISSF in the region.


Technology Commercialization, DOST SETUP ISSF, Food Sector Benificiaries, Food Technology,Food Processing Assessment


Marketability and sustainability of Klikdito.ph online buying and selling website in the Philippines

Author: Harold B. Candelaria (2014)


As a new entrant in the Philippine online marketspace providing a single platform for online buying and selling, Klikdito.ph understands the challenges ahead in competing with well-established brands and competitors. The website was developed based from the concept of the existing industry leaders in online buying and selling platform – Sulit.com.ph and Ayosdito.ph which makes Klikdito.ph it a mere copy that offers the same service for advertising. Nevertheless, the website was hopes to capture a portion of the market by providing a fresh look platform with a fast, easy and secure feature offered to ordinary individuals and at the same time establish a brand of its own through the use of effective marketing strategy implementation. One major issue concerning Klikdito.ph is the marketability and sustainability of the website for longer term considering the saturation of the online industry where new business ideas and concepts are sprouting everywhere. With the help of this research, the implementation of the strategy and solution contribute in positioning the website in a way that it will continue to operate and flourish even the emergence of many competitions surrounding the field of online buying and selling industry. Improving the online presence of the website is one aspect that must be given focus based on the implemented strategy in order to continue in capturing certain niche of the market. Nonetheless, continuous refinement of the strategy is crucial in order to have a steady stream for website traffic which is the source of potential revenue for the website. Understanding the current state of the business through SWOT analysis helped the management team to have a better picture on how certain strategy and solution will be applied. Knowing on which aspects and external entities that have potential impact allows the management to prepare and anticipate the necessary actions to be implemented for future improvements. Using common methodology of quantitative research the management team was able to understand on which solution and strategy yield better results through comparative statistic. However, online limitation of the research method is it only capture figures gathered from free online tools where information are limited and may not be accurate on the actual business standpoint as baseline for comparison. The use of common framework and simple concept effectively guide the research flow of implementing different solution and strategy for marketing the website. Translating the classic brick and mortar concept and the process of marketing the business to social media, Klikdito.ph was able to apply solutions that essentially improve its online presence. The solution showed that the most effective tool for marketing is actually through the use of the Internet itself compared with other offline marketing solutions. Using online tools such as paid advertising from Facebook the website dramatically increased social network presence to more than 2500 percent which is a very huge figure. Similarly, Google paid advertising consistently maintained its market reach to 1,500 visitors on a weekly basis. The increased in traffic was a key driver that can potentially translate into revenue. However, improving website traffic does not essentially guarantee long term success for Klikdito.ph. Addressing other key issues that pertains to business capabilities such as business registration which is critical for any business startups and resources management to sustain business operation should not be neglected by the management team. Klikdito.ph must also understand the benefits of improving the business from its core operation and not just improving the website traffic. Based on this research Klikdito.ph requires further improvement that later on could bring longer benefits if given with the right attention. Refining not just Klikdito.ph website but also the entire delivery of service will make the business sustain the growing market competition in online buying and selling industry. It is recommended that The Klikdito.ph must improve the core business by securing the right permit of business registration applying for patent protection for their brand and trademarks creating a definitive mission and vision for the business and, drafting a clear agreements through contract among business owners. Improve the management capabilities by employing additional people that will assume the right roles and responsibilities within the business. Allocate a consistent budget that is distributed in all areas of the business such as 50 percent on marketing and another 50 percent on operation. Thus, ensuring that all sides of the business are covered and no other areas are neglected. Additionally, the management should look for additional source of funds through partnership as a form of diversification to limit the reliance on member’s personal source of income.


Improve management through allocating time on other areas of the business that is critical such as marketing and not on a single unit of the business which the technical operation. Investing in hardware for longer term and leveraging mobile technology through the development of Apps that will target mobile users and to anticipate the shift in trend to mobility. Improve customer support by improving the website support structure and at the same time allocating individual that will respond to customers or online user’s inquiry. With all the implemented marketing solutions and strategy, it is evident from this research that utilizing the right marketing strategy that works is one factor that keeps the business moving. Klikdito.ph must also understand the benefits of improving the business from its core and not just the technical aspect of the website in order to have a holistic approach for aiming longer sustainability and to survive the fast changing market condition. However, it is not guaranteed that it will position the website in the top spot nor surpass or outpaced the industry leaders rather only ensures consistent and steady operation which is a good sign for longer stability and sustainability.



Online, marketspace, online buy and sell, online presence, technology commercialization


A technology commercialization plan of the Amphitrike (Amphibious Tricycle)

Author: Yunissan Carmel Q. Uy (2014)


Despite the recent calamities the country has faced, the automotive sector remains strong with continuous sales increase for the past years. However, the Philippine transport industry has been engaging in mere importation of commercialized vehicles from its neighbouring countries. This resulted into decreasing innovation capability by the automotive assemblers and productivity lags in the manufacturing sector. Even with brightest Filipino inventors, indigenous automotive brands are still lacking in the country because of its incompetence in terms of technology commercialization. This project report presents a comprehensive and robust commercializaton plan for an amphibious vehicle, called the Amphitrike. The main objectives of this paper are : [1] to identify an appropriate pre-commercialization decision, whether to license, sell or build the Amphitrike [2] to recognize market opportunities [3] to develop a technology transfer plan based from the decision made and [4] to identify the critical points in the process of technology diffusion. The main content of this report is shown on the methodology section, which is divided into five integrated frameworks : [1] what to sell decision strategy [2] opportunity recognition [3] crossing the chasm strategy [4] technology transfer plan and [5] marketing plan that will be used during the time when the business is launched. What to Sell Decision method is applied into the subject company which is the H2O Technologies, Inc., an R&D company who invented the concept of the Amphitrike. The decision derived from the factors and attributes presented was to sell the technology to a competent organization capable of building the whole product solution. Opportunity has been recognized thru the business concept development where the Amphitrike is described as a three-wheeled vehicle called the H2O Salamander. The Amphitrike’s target customers are individuals, groups or organizations who need versatile transport in land and water. It will be distributed via local dealership in the country. Moreover, commercializing a technology is not stimulated with an actual transfer of the idea to prospective developer. A technology transfer plan is also presented in augmenting a robust and comprehensive technology commercialization plan. This section covers several factors in transferring the technology such as certain documents about the technology, intellectual property filed, licensing agreements, and IP valuation. The IP valuation in this paper tells that the Amphitrike, upon bringing ito to the market, will generate substantial revenues for fifteen years. After determining the value of money from the Amphitrike’s technology, an action plan shall be prepared on the actual technology transfer. This action plan involves gathering of necessary requirements which involve various costs in manufacturing and distribution. It also covers the timeline before presenting it to prospective investors. Since the Amphitrike is a new product to enter the market, the adoption by its target customers is crucial. This section covers substantial principles from (Rogers 2010) about the categories of technology adopters and their characteristics. Technology adopters are classified into five : [1] innovators, [2] early adopters, [3] early majority, [4] late majority, and [5] the laggards. The degree of differences among these adopters embodies the level of willingness to which they will adopt a technology. The early market category consists of the innovators and early adopters while, the main stream market consists of the early majority, late majority and laggards. According to (Mohr, Sengupta and Slater 2010), crossing a chasm means getting off the gap between the early market and the mainstream market. This report presented three (3) different approaches in crossing the chasm : establishing a beach head, offering the whole product solution, and integrating factors affecting adoption of innovation strategy. In the case of the Amphitrike, the beachhead entails the public and private organizations with intentional purpose of using the vehicle for flooded rescue operations. The auxiliary applications from the beachhead would result in considerable publicity to reach the mainstream market and make the Amphitrike a viral product. Offering the whole product solution makes it possible to reach the majority thru end-to-end solution in fulfilling the customer’s needs. There are six (6) factors that have been presented based from (Moore 2006) that affect the customer’s purchase decisions : relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, testability, product benefits, and observability. Integrating these factors serve another strategy in penetrating the mainstream market. A marketing plan was developed after reaching pre-commercialization decision, recognizing business opportunities, planning for technology transfer, and strategizing for technology adoption. This marketing plan serves as a constructive tool upon launching the business. Bringing the Amphitrike to the market requires an analysis of its market demographics. The Amphitrike is a new product in the road transport which intends to disrupt the existing motor vehicles in the country. With the frequent disasters and calamities, floods have become a fatal enemy by most people especially in Metro Manila and nearby provinces. These circumstances have resulted to an inevitable need to adapt and survive. The Amphitrike’s versatility in land and flood water provides affected people the capability and comfort of moving from one location to another.


Amphibian vehicles have been around in the 1700s but it didn’t commercialize well due to some technical reasons and adaptation constraints. The historical experience of amphibians’ attempt to enter the market remains a big challenge. This paper attempts to acquire Amphitrike a position in the automotive industry. It showed, in the recent years, a positive growth on both passenger cars and commercial vehicles. With this, the automotive industry is a potential market for the Amphitrike. Buyer behavior, consumer purchase decisions, customer segments, competition and collaborations are discussed comprehensively on the marketing plan. Moreover, macroeconomic forces are also included in the marketing plan covering its demographics, economic climate, technology and legal and regulatory issues. The target market for the Amphitrike is the Filipino middle class C with average annual income of Php603,000,000. The economic climate spurs positive growth and is believed to continually be strong in the coming years. The technology examined to be of greatest effect to the Amphitrike is the emergence of electric vehicle industry. However, this won’t affect the Amphitrike since it can be converted into electric amphibian. Legal and regulatory issues are very much essential to consider in the marketing plan. The Philippine transport industry is regulated by selected government agencies. Compliance on its rules and regulations is needed for the actual use of the Amphitrike. This report targets the First Pacific Limited as the company to acquire the Amphitrike’s technology. The company’s assets, capabilities, areas of advantage, market position, and strengths and weaknesses are carefully analyzed in the marketing plan. After analyzing the company, financial and non financial objectives are also discussed in the marketing plan. The financial objective for the Amphitrike is to increase its revenue by 20 percent each year and to gain a market share of at least 2 percent in the total passenger car market. Non financial objectives are customer satisfaction, perceived quality and loyalty. Aside from financial and non financial objectives, target market segments and value proposition are also discussed in the marketing plan. The target market of the Amphitrike is the same as that of motorcycle, tricycle and passenger car. Demographics and psychological customer segments are the identified market segments for the Amphitrike. A perceptual map containing multi-level attributes was presented for value proposition. A winning marketing strategy is important to reach to target customers ascertaining awareness with regards to the value and benefit of the Amphitrike. The overall marketing activities planned are paid advertisements, sales promotions, and public relations and publicity. These paid advertisements cover promotions on social media, TV ads, print ads, etc. Sales promotions cover price discounts and rebates offered to early deployment. Public relation and publicity cover sponsorships and partnerships with rescue organizations. The estimated total marketing campaign cost is about Php58,000,000. The price of the Amphitrike ranges from Php250,000.00 to Php350,000.00. Similar financing options used by car dealerships are also applied. Upon the actual marketing campaign and product dealership, several factors on finances and processes for corrective action are also tackled in the marketing plan. Based on the five (5) commercialization frameworks presented, Amphitrike will be a successful innovation if commercialized properly and adapted well by its target customers.


Keywords: technology commercialization, amphitrike, amphibious tricycle


Technology Foresight

Technology forecasting by analogy and technology assessment on the drug profiling system for implementation at the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA)

Author:  Maria Therese Anne L.Domingo (2014)


The illicit manufacture, trafficking, and use of illicit drugs particularly methamphetamine hydrochloride constitute one of the most significant drug problems worldwide. Illicit drugs continue to pose a threat to a country’s security and stability while at the same time jeopardizing the health and welfare of its citizens. The high demand for drugs and the massive profits generated by their trade continue to provide ample incentive for manufacturers and traffickers to expand their illicit business. This increase in the local availability and consumption of illicit drugs highlighted the need for a more innovative and focused approach that will counter this global drug problem. In the Philippines, the demand for drugs has not been substantially reduced. The Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) is the lead anti-drugs law enforcement agency in the country responsible for preventing, investigating, and combating dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and essential chemicals. With its vision to provide a drug-free Philippines by 2020, PDEA needs to implement innovative measures that will help them suppress the supply of dangerous drugs. The gaps in the availability and analysis of data in relation to all aspects of the drug phenomenon limit their understanding of the drug market dynamics which consequently hindrances them in developing appropriate action and intervention that will suppress the growing problem of illicit drugs. The technology of interest for this study is drug profiling. The rationale for the implementation of a forensic drug profiling system is to serve as an additional tool to identify targets or groups involved in organized crime by linking seized drugs with individuals involved in drug production and/or trafficking. The competitive advantages and benefits of drug profiling as an intelligence-gathering process for law enforcers are analyzed using a combination of technology forecasting by analogy and technology assessment tools. Analyses showed the country’s potential acceptance of the technology as well as its capability to implement it.

Keywords: technology forecasting, drug profiling, PDEA, Philippines


Technology foresight on FNRI’s developed stabilizes brown rice utilization in the Philippines through Scenario Building

Author: Jaypy S. De Juan (2014)


Historically, Filipinos ate mostly brown rice until Westerners introduced the modern milling process that produced white polished rice which soon dominated the market and eventually changed our cultural tradition on rice preference. White rice is the most consumed form of rice based on the Food Consumption Data of the 7th National Nutrition Survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology. In 2010, the Philippines became the biggest net importer of rice – a far cry from when it was Asia’s rice bowl. The ballooning population, rice wastage, and shrinking agricultural productivity are some of the factors which have brought this depressing state of affairs. Today, brown rice is gaining popularity primarily due to its nutritional and health benefits. It provides all the necessary carbohydrates requirements of an individual just like white rice. Its bran layer is a source of dietary fiber, minerals and B vitamins. Shifting to brown or unpolished rice, on top of more government investments in sustainable agriculture is one of the solutions to achieving rice self-sufficiency. However storage of brown rice is a major problem among rice miller due to unstable state within a month. In line with this, FNRI-DOST successfully determined in 2012 the optimum condition for extending the shelf-life of brown rice for more than a month using a modified process technology. With this the S&T solution offered by the FNRI-DOST, our rice producer may be more confident in supplying brown rice in the market knowing it can last longer. The FNRI-developed Stabilized Brown Rice (SBR) Technology is the subject of this special project wherein the researcher will undertake a foresight exercise using scenario building, defining the future situation that will facilitate the evolution from the original situation to the future situation of brown rice utilization in the country. This effort will create scenarios that will foresee the future situation affecting or influencing the utilization of stabilized brown rice in the country in 2020 (e.g. technology transfer and commercialization, policy and other drivers for utilization). This will also provide an overview of the challenges faced by the rice sector in cognizant with the DA’s agenda for a rice self-sufficient country in 2013 and beyond. The study would like to answer the following problem : what is the future of the FNRI-developed Stabilized Brown Rice Utilization in the Philippines and what are the critical factors influencing / affecting brown rice utilization in 2020?

The report revealed the following results drawn from literature search, FGD, and scenario building exercise following the 10 stages in scenario planning strategy. The focal issues : rice importation, micronutrient deficiency, emerging health problem and rice sufficiency program triggers the development of FNRI-DOST Stabilized Brown Rice and the possible future utilization of this particular technology is in question. The key predictable variables & uncertainties : Ten (10) key predictable variables were identified such as : shelf-life, cost of technology, IP protection, possible adoptors, food safety, nutritional and health benefits, availability of materials, consumer acceptability, culture and quality, while, six (6) critical uncertainties were identified such as : patentability, government support, possible competitors, policy protection for producers, natural phenomenon, and rice innovation, which believed to influence the future of the stabilized brown rice. The possible adoptors: Two (2) possible adoptors signified intent to adopt the technology on the production of stabilized brown rice, governed with memorandum of agreement amongst the parties involved. These are the Nutrition and Beyond Corporation (NBC) in San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija and the Salignas Agri Farm in Leyte. Development of scenarios : Three different scenarios were developed and named as follows : Scenario 1 – The Dominant 3 (TSM) Influence 0 (high impact-low uncertainty) Scenario 2 – The Return of Brown Influence (medium impact & uncertainty) Scenario 3 – The Vague Influence – (high uncertainty – low impact) All the scenarios are considered as the influencing plausible scenarios that possibly occur for the SBR technology utilization by the year 2020. Implication of Scenario : Implication of the above three scenarios highlighted the key driving forces with different degree of impact and uncertainty which are highly influence by the determinants of utilization. These determinants evolved from the assessment of the scenario which believes to be the active agents or actors to push the utiization which can results to a favorable future for SBR utilization and commercialization. Now, the focus is how the determinants of utilization such as the institutes, the government, and the private sector (including the industry & rice sector) will strategically respond to the challenges and issues of technology utilization and commercialization to advance with the organization’s objective and realized socio-economic benefit.


Keywords: Technology Foresight, FNRI, Brown Rice


Technology foresight for implementing mobile number portability (MNP) in the Philippines using scenario building

Author:      Cecile Manuel Mariano (2014)


The world today is experiencing innovation and technology at its finest. With the advancement of technology and innovation, there are endless possibilities emerging into reality to which we all benefit from . May it be in any industry, undeniably, technology has helped shape and develop our civilization and our way of living today. It has made countless lives easier and has helped us utilize time more efficiently to create a better society with endless possibilities. In light of this technological boom, mobile phones have become a part of almost every person, in the case of this study, the Filipino, both young and old, because of the multiple purposes it serves. Mobile phone users therefore are slowly moving towards a single number. It is for this reason that in most countries, such as the Philippines, Filipinos have made their mobile telephone number their personal alternative identifier, consequently almost completely eradicating the option of changing numbers. For mobile users, their mobile numbers have become their ownership and therefore have become personal to them since most of them have had their mobile numbers for the longest time. Aside from that, consumers nowadays have become more mobile and therefore would rather prefer to be reached anytime and anywhere with their mobile devices. And with a single number in place, personal mobility becomes possible. Telecommunications (Telco) Industry in the Philippines has become one of the most competitive industries in the country today. More particularly, the mobile sector has become the game changer in human behavior as well as a significant player in the economy. It is therefore essential to maximize and utilize this mobile craze to the country’s advantage for economic growth and respond appropriately to technological advancement and innovation. However, the Philippines’ Telco Industry is a duopoly type composing of the two giants- Smart Telecommunications with its subsidiary company, Sun Cellular, and Globe Telecom, causing competition to be stagnant and quality of service to be very poor. And although mobile phone users would want to change network providers due to reasons like poor quality of service and lack of diverse product offerings in the market, they cannot do so since it would compel them to give up their existing numbers. Given the current situation, this study aims to address these issues through Technology Foresight on the plausible implementation of mobile number portability in the Philippines using Scenario Building. Number porting is a service that enables telephone customers to retain their existing telephone numbers even when they switch from one Operator to another.

Keywords: Mobile Number Portability, Technology Adoption, Philippine Telecommunications Industry

Technology Assessment

Assessment of DOST Technology Application and Promotion Institute’s Technology Innovation for Commercialization in relation to the SBIR/STTR implementation framework

Author: Arjay Carandang Escondo (2014)


The study was conducted to assess the Technology Innovation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM) Program of DOST Technology Application and Promotion Institution using the framework of US SBIR-STTR model. The program implementation guidelines were analyzed to determine the extent of TAPI’s involvement in delivering their services to program beneficiaries and identify problems and constraints encountered in the implementation of the program. An operational framework and evaluation criteria were used to analyze data and to come up with recommendation that could be used by the Program to facilitate the implementation of their commercialization programs. Literatures and the US SBIR-STTR-IPP model on technology grants were reviewed and compared with the program’s implementation guideline. Results show that TECHNICOM Program was able to address the pre-commercialization needs of emerging technologies and other R&D output, however more focus or support are needed to addresses the gaps present in the actual commercialization such as private sector industry funding and partnerships to provide the support for the pre-commercialization stage however the actual entry of technologies developed in the market remains to be addressed. To facilitate the actual commercialization of technologies developed, several recommendations were provided including a) identification of partner agencies that will cater TECHNICOM graduates, b) Review of the grant schemes provided by TECHNICOM, patterned according to the SBIR-STTR model, c) harmonize the different commercialization efforts of the Department to address commercialization gaps and promote start-ups’ sustainability, and d) strengthen linkages with other government agencies that can develop market needs such as DTI, DOT, DOLE among others and strong linkages with the academe and other RDIs for the technology push approach and forging ties with private collaborators for the market pull approach.

Keywords: Technology Assessment, DOST TAPI, TECHNICOM, Technology Commercialization

Resource-based technology needs assessment: A creation of model for environmentally sound technology action planning for MSMES climate change adaptation

Author:  Emiel Prisco N. Discar (2014)


The Resource-based Technology Needs Assessment was conducted during the period of November 2013 to February 2014. It is obvious that, by coincidence, the activity was done at the midst of post disaster period, that is, after the hit of super typhoon Yolanda in the province where the resources have been devastated. This become a challenge of the Author – on how DOST as lead S&T driver will contribute in providing S&T solutions to economic needs of the society. The study will provide information or establish options that may be crucial in decision making process for economic activities in the province, specifically : 1. For PSTC personnel, the result of the study will provide advance information on the priority sectors that have competitive advantage. The technology needs in the priority sectors, in a way, will support the identification and selection of high impact enterprises. 2. For private inventors, R&D teams and RDIs, the identified potential technologies for the prioritized sector will be a vital input in establishing a resourced and technology-based R&D portfolio that would gear towards answering the needs of entrepreneurs. 3. The result of the study will likewise inspire local entrepreneurs to look for sweet spots in identifying technology-based enterprise that will help spur the economic condition of the province. 4. The result will also help in influencing planners, policy makers and other actors in incorporating resource and technology-based enterprise strategy in the economic development agenda and innovation system development of the province. 5. For technology managers, the result of the study will serve as baseline information in strategizing the establishment of technology management system in the province. Perhaps, a road map will be created to in-place its technology innovation system. The study was focused on the first major step of strategic management process (e.g. analysis, formulation, implementation, adjustment/evaluation) as designed to satisfy strategic imperatives for building competitive advantage, (Pitts and Lei, 2007). The major activities conducted were : a) scanning of primary and secondary resources available in the province b) scanning of available and potential technologies within the DOST research and development institutes c) matching these resources and technologies with the identified priority industry sectors of the DOST (food processing industry, furniture industry, aquamarine industry, agriculture/horticulture industry, GDH industry, metal and engineering industry, pharmaceutical industry, ICT/electronics industry, and packaging/labelling industry) c) prioritization of the industry sectors d) Environmental scanning that may shape the top priority industry. Data gathering was done through internet search, personal visit and interviews to extract secondary data from different research and development institutes and council of the DOST (e.g. FNRI, PTRI, ITDI, FPRDI, PCAARRD, etc.), Provincial Planning and Development Office, Office of the Provincial Agriculture and Services, Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Office and Bureau of Agriculture Statistics Office, etc. The study reveals that there are substantial primary resources from marine/aquatic, agriculture, forest and minerals are available in Eastern Samar. Likewise, there are several local technologies available in the DOST RDIs that may provide support in selected industry. The following highlights are the result of the resource-based technology needs assessment : a. The food processing industry in the province is highly dependent on the raw materials supplied from agriculture sector. A lot of technologies (e.g. process and methods) are developed by ITDI and FNRI. Machines and equipment that supports the industry mostly comes from private sectors. b. Existing technologies from RDIs are sufficient to support the furniture industry in Eastern Samar. There are existing raw materials, but now depleting, hence, the industry is detrimental to environment. Based on current practice, the raw materials are being exploited without replenishing or replanting. The industry maybe sustainable if the players will adopt some programs introduced by DENR.

  1. The province has available raw materials for gifts, decors and handicraft industry, especially local resources from forest areas (e.g. trees, vines, palms, grasses and herbs, ferns, pandan, etc.). On the other hand, available technologies from PTRI and FPRDI could answer the needs of the industry. Weaving machine for indigenous mats, hats and bags and sewing machine for nipa shingles for thatch (“pawod”) production are potential R&D projects for research and development firms or institutes. These machines will probably enhance the weaving and nipa thatching activities of the industry players. d. Before the typhoon Yolanda hits the province, Guiuan, Borongan and other municipalities were one of the suppliers of marine products to other places like Tacloban, Cebu and Manila. The players of marine and aquatic industry in the province are on the stage of recovery and rehabilitation – from cages production, motor boats and fishing gears acquisition. It is anticipated, that within a year, the industry will be revitalized, and again will sustain the supply of the marine primary products such as live lapu-lapu, yellow fins, mud crabs, blue crabs, lobster, etc. DOST RDIs have technologies ready for commercialization that may support the development of marine and aquatic industry in the province. Likewise, these RDIs are working with universities and private firms to develop further technologies that may compliment the industry sector. e. DOST RDIs have developed technologies for commercialization, particularly machines and equipment, to enhance the activities from land preparation, planting, harvesting, to storage. Also, there are a lot of S&T based programs of DOST that could support the organic farming system in the province. Eastern Samar is rich in natural resources, particularly minerals such as chromite, gold, bauxite, nickel etc. These minerals, taking as raw materials, can be a spinoff to metal and engineering industry in the province, instead of taking out or importing to other countries. On the other hand, mining industry in the province is detrimental to environment. Although, responsible mining are the offerings of the mining firms, yet, it is perceived by the people that the mining areas vacated by the firms remain unproductive and idle, therefore, not sustainable. It is a challenge for the RDIs to develop and promote technologies that may complement metal industry in the province. g. There are no local raw materials that may support the ICT/electronics industry in the province. h. In terms of pharmaceuticals, the province has insufficient source of supply for medicinal plants, although there are available materials but in smaller quantity. Process technologies and machines developed from different RDIs are ready for commercialization and have to conduct more R&D activities to complement the industry. i. The province has potential to produce an eco-friendly packaging materials by utilizing fibrous raw materials available in the locality. Technologies from FPRDI, especially, in paper making, are readily available for commercialization. The identified industry sectors of the DOST evaluated based on the following attributes, resulted to identify the top priority industry sector in Easter Samar, to wit : a) availability of local resources, b) availability of solutions (existing technologies), c) Impact of the industry (in terms of solution to current issue and problems arising in the province), d) Potential contributor for economic development, e) sustainability to climate change. Agriculture/horticulture industry being the top priority followed by aquamarine industry, food processing industry, GDH industry, Health Products Services / Pharmaceuticals Industry, furniture industry, product packaging and labelling, metals and engineering industry and the least is the ICT/Electronics industry. Agriculture/horticulture and marine industry will be the platform industries that will influence other related industries to enter (e.g. food processing and packaging and labelling). Accordingly, the environmental dimensions of the agricultural industry (agribusiness industry) per see, points out different challenges, opportunities and threats particularly in the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental dimensions. Technologically, the general condition of the Philippine National Innovation System is technically a great challenge for policy makers to make it effective and productive. As Posadas (2013) asserts, the country did not lack administrative structures, priority lists, and plans for science and technology. It suffered, however, from very low public commitment to STI, academic research, and public and private R&D. All these commitments have been absent in the entire story of the Philippines, under both Spanish and American rule, as well as since independence in 1946. Investments in R&D have been low, and policy incentives for the private sector basically non-existent. Public commitment to education is as paper-thin as that to S&T and helps explain the continuous down-grading of the country. This has perpetuated a vicious circle of S&T underdevelopment and dependence, which is the central problem of national S&T development in the Philippines (as cited in Niosi, 2010). Of course the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development are on their track to provide innovations that will help enhance the activities in the agricultural industry. The province has to initiate in the development of Agricultural Innovation System in an Agricultural Value Chain System. The purpose of which is to harmonize the interrelated activities involved in the agricultural innovation system. A technology management team has to be organized and whose major role is to orchestrate the technical and management functions from technology generation, technology protection, diffusion and commercialization in the different industry sectors, especially, agricultural industry sector.

Keywords: Climate Change Adaptation, Technology Needs Assessment, Technology-based Enterprises, Technology Roadmap, Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Impact assessment of the cleaner production (CP) and energy audit (EA) programs of DOST IV-A

Author: Emelita Bagsit (2014)


Sustainable development is now the byword among the economists and environmentalists, which is somehow related to the current trends in population growth and industrialization. The impact of these observed trends includes irreversible damage to the environment that in some cases are life threatening. Pollutants are released at a rate faster than the earth can absorb, while natural resources are extracted and consumed at an unimaginable pace, putting the life of the future generations at risk. To abate the stress to the environment that human activities bring, a better way of producing products and services must be explored so that higher degree of productivity can be attained. This means efficient utilization or conversion of inputs such as raw materials and energy into high quality products, or inversely with minimal or nil wastage along the production chain. This concept of effective and efficient production process is better known as the “Cleaner Production.” Cleaner Production (CP) is an environmental management approach whose goal is to improve the pro-environmental performance of products, processes and services by looking at the causes or sources of environmental problems rather than the symptoms. Unlike the traditional approach to pollution control wherein focus/action is “after-the-event” or reactive, commonly known as “end-of-pipe” action, CP is based on proactive or the “anticipate-and-prevent perspective”. It is commonly applied in the production process through conservation of raw materials/resources, elimination of toxic raw materials, cutback on energy use, and reduction of wastes and emissions. The CP concepts can be applied throughout the life cycle of a product or service, starting from the initial design phase until the consumption and disposal stage. Strategies to implement CP may include one or combination of the following : improved housekeeping practices, process optimization, raw materials substitution, new technology and new product design. Related to the concept of Cleaner Production is the Energy Audit (EA), with some literatures stating that the former subsumes the latter. This is so because energy is technically considered as input in a production process. EA is a process that identifies where and how much energy is used in an existing facility, building or structure. The results then provide relevant information/inputs in the preparation and adoption of energy conservation measures (ECMs). Energy audits identify economically justified interventions to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). Recognizing the importance of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to the economic growth, DOST IV-A has been implementing programs and projects aimed to enhance operational efficiency and boost productivity and competitiveness of the 122, 562 MSMEs in the Region (NSO, 2005). However, literatures also cite that these MSMEs are the ones not complying with environmental standards set by regulatory bodies. This is so because of their lack of funds and the technical know-how to make their company compliant with the laws and policies of the government. In order to assist the MSMEs, DOST IV-A started the implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) in 2006 and Energy Audit in 2009, that promote technology innovations to improve productivity of the MSMEs by reducing wastes generation at the source and maximizing efficient use of energy. To demonstrate that DOST is really committed in providing technologies to MSMEs that would abate environmental problems, starting in 2012 CP and EA have already listed/considered as technology interventions under the Small Enterprise Technology Upgrading System (SETUP). Since the DOST IV-A is already investing so much resources (manpower and funds) to provide CP and EA assistance, it is but necessary to conduct a study to determine the impact of these interventions to the productivity and competitiveness of the MSMEs. This study focused on the assessment of the implementation of CP and EA in Region IV-A and the impacts they brought to the programs’ beneficiaries. The success and failure factors of these two interventions were also analyzed. The study involved descriptive research method and qualitative approach in data collection and evaluation. The results of the study showed that CP and EA programs were highly important technical assistance of DOST IV-A. Based on the survey conducted, despite the challenges in implementing the programs, the beneficiaries of the programs recognized the benefits of implementing the CP and EA recommendations provided in the Assessment Reports. They have attributed or at least related the improvements in the efficiency of their production processes or general operations to the recommendations of the CP and EA teams. These ultimately led to outcomes such as savings and increased profit from the reduction of power consumption, less wastage of raw materials and products (less rejects), more efficient production processes and reduced costs of other utilities such as water. Compliance of the companies to government regulations was one of the important impacts of the assistance provided. Overall, it can be said that the CP and EA assessment results proved that these programs generally enhanced the productivity and competitiveness of the assisted companies.

In terms of programs implementation, it was very evident that there are improvements that need to be done. Technical capabilities of the CP and EA teams are quite limited due to their basic educational background. Also, it can be concluded that implementation of the CP and EA recommendations followed Technology Management concepts specifically the framework of Technology Diffusion and Adoption. Results of the survey revealed that diffusion of CP and EA as technology interventions can be accelerated using the following elements : 1) innovation, 2) propagation, 3) time, and 4) system as cited by Narayanan (2001). The adoption rates of CP and EA recommendations were observed to be affected by the following factors (Moore, 2010) : 1) relative advantage, 2) compatibility, 3) complexity, 4) trialability, 5) ability to communicate product benefits, and 6) observability. Based on this study, though CP and EA programs are worthwhile undertakings of DOST IV-A, however, there are still many improvements to be done to maximize their benefits to firm-beneficiaries. The recommendations were classified into : 1) Management of the Program and 2) Improvements on the Technical Aspects. Under the Management of the Program, recommendations were given on the following areas : 1) manpower, 2) implementation and monitoring, and 3) evaluation and feedback mechanisms. For the Technical Aspects Improvement, the following concerns were focused on : 1) program sustainability, 2) education and training, 3) provision and maintenance of equipment, and 4) conduct of follow-up study.

Keywords:  cleaner production, energy audit, DOST